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Rolf Hauge, MC (1 July 1915 – 1989) was a Norwegian army officer who served during the Second World War. Having opposed the German invasion of Norway in 1940, Hauge escaped to Britain in September 1941. He later served with the Norwegian Armed Forces in exile, commanding No. 5 Norwegian Troop of the British Army's No. 10 (Inter-Allied) Commando.

Early lifeEdit

He was born on 1 July 1915, in Bergen, a son of Jørgen Ingjeldsen and Randi Hauge (née Urheim). He had his schooling at Bergen Cathedral School. He married Margaret Gerrard Watt Burnett from Scotland in 1942, and would have a son born in 1943.[1][2]

In 1934–35, Hauge studied at and graduated from the Norwegian field artillery's officer school.[3] Following these studies, he studied social economics from 1935. In 1937 he began two years of studies at the Norwegian Military Academy. He became a lieutenant, serving in the Kongsberg and Bergen anti-aircraft command in 1939.[4]

World War II Edit

After Germany invaded Norway in 1940, Hauge participated in the defence of Rjukan from 9 April.[5][1] At Rjukan, Hauge commanded an improvised heavy machine gun company until the forces there were dissolved on 3 May 1940, following the Allied evacuation from southern and central Norway.[6][7] Although Rjukan and the county of Telemark had been considered by the Norwegian military to have no strategic value, it was defended at the request of the Allies, who wanted the heavy water production facilities defended against the advancing German forces.[8][9]

After the end of fighting, Hauge attempted to reach the areas in Northern Norway still controlled by Norway via Sweden, but was handed over to the Germans by Swedish officials. He held was held in Trondheim until June 1940, and later made contact with the resistance movement.[10] In December, he was arrested,[11] due to the discovery of a resistance group by the Germans, but was released shortly before Christmas. His parole was conditioned on his reporting to German authorities.[12]

Fearing further consequences, he decided to flee to Sweden. In Sweden he acquired two tickets to travel the "long way" to Britain: aircraft to Moscow, train to Odessa, by boat over the Black Sea, then by ship from Suez around the Cape of Good Hope to the Atlantic Ocean. He arrived in Glasgow in September 1941. In Britain, Hauge joined the Norwegian Armed Forces in exile and became the second-in-command of Company 4, Norwegian Brigade.[13] Two of the company's infantry platoons were sent in June 1942 on a shock assault training course at Fort William.[14] In August 1942, Hauge assumed command of No. 5 Norwegian Troop of No. 10 (Inter-Allied) Commando,[1][15] with the rank of captain. Hauge was authorized to select volunteers from the whole Norwegian Brigade, but the troop's nucleus was drawn from those who had trained at Fort William. The unit was initially based in Nefyn, in Wales, and underwent a three-week 'Commando Hardening Course' in Achnacarry before they became commandos.[16]

In January 1943, a detachment from his troop participated in Operation Cartoon, an attack on the pyrite mines of Stordø Kisgruber at Litlabø.[17] From May 1943, 5 Troop went through intensive training in preparation for landing operations. They were based from January 1944 in Shetland, from where they took part in raids on the Norwegian coast. Hauge's unit later fought in the Battle of the Scheldt, in particular the successful assault on Walcheren (Operation Infatuate) in November 1944.[18][19][20] Hauge's report on Walcheren was reprinted in Fjærli's book in 1982. The troop suffered four killed and seventeen wounded through the eight-day battle, and Hauge himself was wounded.[21][22] While recuperating, Hauge was awarded the British Military Cross for his leadership during the operation.[23]

In January 1945, 5 Troop landed on the island of Kapelsche Veer, along with 47 (Royal Marine) Commando. The attack was not an immediate success, but the island was secured a few weeks later by Canadian troops.[24][25] When the first Norwegian assault resulted in more than 50% casualties, Hauge called off renewed attacks ordered by 47 Commando. His troop did not engage in further action after Kapelsche Veer,[22] being instead sent to officially neutral Sweden on 1 May. Eight days after arriving in Sweden, Hauge led 5 Troop over the border into Norway to support the disarming of the surrendered German occupation force. When Crown Prince Olav returned to Norway on 13 May, 5 Troop formed his guard of honour.[26]

Among the decorations awarded to Hauge were the St. Olav's Medal With Oak Branch,[27] the Norwegian War Medal, the Defence Medal 1940–1945, the Haakon VII 70th Anniversary Medal, the British Military Cross, the 1939–45 Star,[1] and the France and Germany Star.[4]

Later career Edit

Hauge continued his military career after the end of the war. He lectured at the Norwegian Military Academy from 1945 to 1946, studied at the Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences from 1946 to 1948, and commanded a field artillery battalion of Norwegian Army Command Germany in 1949.[1] Hauge served as a NATO staff officer from 1951, and the following year assume command of a field artillery training school.[28] From 1958 to 1972, he headed Field Artillery Regiment 3 at Trondheim, with the rank of colonel.[1][28] Hauge died in 1989.[29]

References Edit

NotesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Steenstrup, Bjørn, ed. (1973). "Hauge, Rolf". Hvem er Hvem? (in Norwegian) (11 ed.). Oslo: Aschehoug. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  2. Møller 1959: p. 524.
  3. Gamst 1998: pp. 203, 211.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Møller 1959: p. 165.
  5. Johnsen 1956: p. 101
  6. Haga 1984: p. 19
  7. Johnsen 1956: pp. 116–173
  8. Johnsen 1956: pp. 84, 289
  9. The German-controlled production of heavy water at Vemork near Rjukan ended in 1943, after a successful sabotage action by Norwegian Independent Company 1 and a bombing raid by American heavy bombers.(Kraglund, Ivar (1995). "tungtvannssabotasjonen". In Dahl, Hans Fredrik. Norsk krigsleksikon 1940-45 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Cappelen. pp. 425–426. Retrieved 24 April 2014)
  10. Haga 1984: p. 20
  11. Ottosen 2004: P. 292
  12. Haga 1984: pp. 19
  13. Haga 1984: pp. 20–22
  14. Fjærli 1982: p. 186.
  15. van der Bijl 2006: p. 8.
  16. Fjærli 1982: pp. 187–188.
  17. Haga 1984: pp. 47–69
  18. Fjærli 1982
  19. Haga 1984: pp. 107–143
  20. Melien 1979
  21. Fjærli 1982: pp. 192–198.
  22. 22.0 22.1 van der Bijl 2006: p. 51.
  23. van der Bijl 2006: p. 59.
  24. Fjærli 1982: p. 191.
  25. Haga 1984: pp. 159–168
  26. van der Bijl 2006: pp. 57–58.
  27. Waage 1967
  28. 28.0 28.1 Bull; Eskeland; Tandberg, eds. (1972). "Hauge, Rolf". Gyldendals store konversasjonsleksikon (in Norwegian) 3 (3 ed.). Oslo: Gyldendal.
  29. Danielsen, D. (18 May 1989). "Rolf Hauge". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). p. 15.

CitationsEdit

  • van der Bijl, Nick (2006). No. 10 (Inter-Allied) Commando 1942–45: Britain's Secret Commando. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-999-1.
  • Fjærli, Eystein (1982). "Vedlegg nr. 22. No 5 Troop 10. Interallied Commando". Den norske hær i Storbritannia 1940–1945 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Tanum. pp. 186–198. ISBN 82-518-1582-7.
  • Gamst, Thorbein (1998). Befalsskolen for Feltartilleriet: 1931–1996 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Artilleriregimentet og Artilleriets offisersforening. ISBN 8299465206.
  • Haga, Arnfinn (1984). Klar til storm. Med de norske commandos i annen verdenskrig (in Norwegian). Cappelen. ISBN 82-02-09088-1.
  • Johnsen, John (1956). Krigen i Norge 1940. [6]: Operasjonene ved Telemark infanteriregiment nr. 3 og Kongsberg luftvern ; Operasjonene i Telemark; Operasjonene i Røldal (in Norwegian). Oslo: Gyldendal.
  • Melien, Hans (1979). "Øivind Lærum: Jeg var en av de grønne djevlene". De kjempet for vår frihet (in Norwegian). Cappelen. pp. 43–53. ISBN 82-02-04390-5.
  • Møller, Tryggve Juul; Hartmann, Alf (1959). Studentene fra 1934: biografiske opplysninger, statistikk og artikler samlet til 25 års jubileet 1959 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Bokkomiteen for studentene fra 1934.
  • Ottosen, Kristian, ed. (2004) [1995]. Nordmenn i fangenskap 1940–1945 (in Norwegian) (2 ed.). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
  • Waage, Johan (1967). "St. Olavs-medaljen". Den høyeste heder (in Norwegian). Oslo: Dreyer. p. 211.
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